How Do Cell Phones


Cell phones have become a global and essential tool for the modern day living. It's importance is emphasized by the number of global users of cellphones which was nearly 7 billion people as of 2014. With a mobile phone, you can speak to anybody anywhere in the globe, but then, do you have the faintest idea about how your mobile phone really functions? Going back to the rudimentary explanation, a mobile phone is primarily a two- way radio which comprises of a radio receiver and a radio transmitter, so when you make a call on your mobile, your voice is converted into an electric signal by the mobile. This signal is conducted through radio waves to the closest mobile tower. Your phone radio waves is then relayed to  your friends mobile phone by the network through the mobile tower, then your friend’s radio will once again change the radio waves to an electrical signal and once again back to voice/sound. In the simplest form, a mobile phone operates in similar manner to a walkie-talkie. Many modern mobile phones have additional features like cameras for taking pictures, web surfing abilities, games applications, message sending and media applications which can play videos and music. More advanced smart phones have the capacity to perform the same functions as a portable computer Radio Waves Mobile phones makes use of radio waves for communication, digitized data or voice are conveyed by radio waves through oscillating magnetic and electrical fields known as EMF (Electro Magnetic Field). The rate or speed of the oscillations is known as the frequency. Radio waves convey information and travel at speed of light through the air. Mobile phones convey radio waves in every direction. These waves have the capacity to be absorbed or redirected by the objects in their surrounding before they get to the closet mobile tower. For instance, when a cellphone is put close to your head while making call, large parts of the energy emitted in most instances are absorbed in the body. In this case, most of the electromagnetic energy of the phones becomes wasted and cannot be used to communicate. Antenna Mobile phones have a minimum of one radio antenna for transmitting or receiving radio signals. Radio waves are converted by antennas into electrical signals (using the transmitter), and also converts the electrical signal back to radio waves (using the receiver).  There are some mobile phones that have only one antenna functioning as both the transmitter and receiver and other phones like the iPhone 5, have many antennas for transmitting and receiving. Antennas are metallic designed to have a particular shape and size for receiving and transmitting specific radio waves frequencies. While the mobile phones of older generation are equipped with only removable or external antennas, thanks to advancement in technology, modern phones have more solid antennas right inside. It is vital to know that any metallic object in the phone like the iPhone’s metal frames and circuit boards have the capacity to relate with transmitting antennas and influence the transmitted signal’s pattern. A lot of advanced smart phones have different types of antennas. Apart from the mobile antenna they also have antennas for Bluetooth, GPS and Wi-Fi. Connectivity As earlier stated, a mobile phone is a reciprocal wireless device for communication which requires the reception (inbound signal) and transmission (outbound signal) to function.  The extent of the signal received from the mobile tower is known as the “signal strength” which is often indicated by bars on the individual’s phone

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